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Mountain Transhumance in the Late Neolithic and the Bronze Age. The Case of the High Bieszczady Mountains. (Polish Carpathians)

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Contents, Foreword 1. Introduction 2. The contexts 2.1. Mobility in the Late Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age 2.1.1. Introductory remarks 2.1.2. Mobility and mountain pasturing in Europ 2.1.3. Mobility in the Late Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age. Archaeological data from southeastern Poland and the adjacent regions 2.2. Climate and climatic changes in the 4,h and 3rd millennium. BC 3. High Bieszczady Mts. and their surroundings 3.1. Environment information 3.2. Palynological data 3.2.1. Credibility of palynological data 3.2.2. Palynological record of human activities in pollen diagrams from the Polish Bieszczady Foothills of the eastern part of the Polish Carpathians The Lower Beskid The Polish High Bieszczady 3.3. The High Bieszczady. Archaeological evidences – introduction 3.3.1. Archaeological materials from the High Bieszczady Moczarne (valleys of the Solinka and the Beskidnik Creek) Połonina Wetlińska Połonina Caryńska Wetlina (the Wetlinka valley) Bukowe Berdo Wielki Dział Mała and Wielka Rawka Cisną The Bukowska Pass Wołosate (the Wołosaty Creek valley) 3.4. Chronological remąrks 3.5. Sites in the landscape 3.5.1. Altitude a.s.l 3.5.2. Fresh water springs 3.5.3. Salty springs 3.5.4. Local siliceous rocks 3.5.5. Potential natural communication routes 3.5.6. Spatial arrangement 3.5.7. Summing-up 4. The High Bieszczady as the mountainous periphery – economic motivations4.1. Pasturing 4.1.1. Adopting grounds 4.1.2. Natural clearings and lit through forests 4.1.3. Adapting natural and anthropogenic clearings for pasturing 4.2. Raw materials 5. Communication 6. The contacts 7. The conflicts 8. Summing-up. Mountain peripheries – the decision motifs 9. Mountain peripheries – new social and cultural relations 9.1. Social differentiation 9.2. Hierarchy and distinctiveness 9.3. Cultural changes 9.4. Summing-up 10. The conclusions, References

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