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The small and big deceptions in psychology and evolutionary sciences perspective

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Contents Introduction. The Universality of Deception in Human and Animal World – Andrzej Łukasik and Anna Kwiatkowska   PART 1. BIOLOGY – CULTURE – DECEPTION Altruism and Deceit in Social Reciprocity. Evolutionary Perspective – Andrzej Łukasik and Magdalena Marzec Introduction The role of food distribution in the evolution of altruism and deceit Theories of altruism and deceit Inclusive fitness theory Group selection Altruism towards strangers Indirect reciprocity Conclusion: egalitarian mind and elitist mind   How Do Others Deceive? Cultural Aspects of Lying and Cheating – Anna Kwiatkowska Introduction Who lies and cheats the most? Alleged lying and cheating Not knowing the right cultural script One truth or many truths? Western truthfulness, Eastern hypocrisy? Linguistic intricacies Cultural legitimization of lying and cheating The Chinese truth and lie The Confucian concept of face The Confucian system of morality China as a collectivist country Lie detection Conclusions   Uncle Jankiel, or, of Self-degradation Self-hatred: History and Meaning of the Term – Bożena Keff Pfefferkorn, or conditionality of Jewish baptism “Jew” as an indivisible category “Jew communist” as the difference scarified at the community altar Pseudonyms and confessions Anti-Semitic Jew disguised as a patriot Yankel apologizes for Berman An authority’s voice about “our courageous Jews”   PART 2. PRAGMATICS OF DECEPTION Cheating in Video Games – Causes and Some Consequences – Grzegorz Pochwatko and Jean-Christophe Giger Introduction The beginnings – the very first Easter egg in the world of pixels An avalanche initiated by Easter eggs Hardware, or “heavy” equipment to cheat Rules of the game Cheating according to gamers What does it mean “to cheat”? Everything but one’s own effort Code is sanctity Creative resistance Some of the (alleged) consequences of cheating in games Cheating in games and life – a study of Polish players Games are the mirror of life in “meat reality” Dictionary of (some) used terms   Cheating in the Weight-control Process – Anna Kwiecień Introduction Potential cheating situations The reasons for the discrepancies between the declarations and facts. Do the people who control their weight really cheat? Revealing the truth Can questions about weight and behaviours connected with weight control be regarded as awkward? Motivations for cheating Self-presentation motivations. Making a good impression Self-defence motivations. Maintaining self-esteem Why do women hide data about the body mass and the amount of food consumed while men do not? Little lies – serious consequences   PART 3. CLINICAL DIMENSION OF DECEPTION The Reality Falsified in Depression – Elżbieta Greszta and Dorota Rakowiecka Introduction View of reality falsified in depression False distortion of reality view in healthy individuals “Sadder but wiser” – phenomenon of depressive realism Is self-deception adaptable? Conclusion   Self-deception, Cognitive and Social Factors Modifying Stress Reactions – Renata Sikora Introduction The advantages and disadvantages of fraud in the perception of psychological stress Beneficial and adverse deception in coping with stress Conclusions and implications   PART 4. EMPIRICAL STUDIES A Half-Truth or a Full-Blown Lie? – Piotr Gasparski Introduction The Framing phenomenon Study 1. What advice would you give to JAN KOWALSKI? Participants Procedure and materials Results Study 2. Are training sessions worthwhile? Participants Procedure and materials Results Analysis of Results   Acceptance of Lying from a Cross-cultural Perspective. Beyond Collectivism and Individualism – Katarzyna Cantarero and Piotr Szarota Lying and moral judgments Culture and its dimensions Going beyond collectivism and individualism in cultural determinants of lying acceptability Broadening the cultural aspect of lying acceptability Study Participants Procedure and materials Results Discussion   List of Contributors (in alphabetical order) Name Index

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